The Presidential Decision Directive on CI-21: Counterintelligence for
the 21st Century
President Clinton signed a Presidential Decision Directive (PDD)
entitled "U.S. Counterintelligence Effectiveness -- Counterintelligence
for the 21st Century." The PDD outlines specific steps that will enable
the U.S. counterintelligence (CI) community to better fulfill its
mission of identifying, understanding, prioritizing and counteracting
the intelligence threats faced by the United States. The system will be
predictive, proactive and will provide integrated oversight of
counterintelligence issues across the national security agencies.
Specifically, the PDD directs the following structure be established to
continue the task of improving U.S. counterintelligence effectiveness:
Counterintelligence Board of Directors
A National Counterintelligence Board of Directors, chaired by the
Director, FBI and composed of the Deputy Secretary of Defense, Deputy
Director of Central Intelligence and a senior representative of the
Department of Justice is hereby established.
The Board, chaired by the Director of the FBI, will operate by
consensus, and will select, oversee and evaluate the National
Counterintelligence Executive (CI Executive) and will promulgate the
mission, role and responsibilities of the CI Executive.
The Board will approve the National Counterintelligence Strategy
drawn from the annual National Threat Identification and Prioritization
Assessment, ensuring the integration of government and private sector
The Board working with Congress, OMB, and other Executive Branch
agencies will ensure the CI Executive has adequate resources to carry
out his/her responsibilities and duties.
NSC Deputies Committee
The NSC Deputies Committee, to include the Director of the FBI,
will review the annual National Threat Identification and Prioritization
Assessment and will meet at least semiannually, to review progress in
implementing the National Counterintelligence Strategy.
The Deputies Committee will ensure that the strategy, priorities
and activities of the CI Community are grounded in national policy goals
and objectives; the Deputies Committee shall also ensure that CI
analysis and information is provided to assist national policy
deliberations as appropriate. The Board of Directors through the CI
Executive will be responsible for ensuring the implementation of these
The National Counterintelligence Executive
The position of CI Executive is established and empowered to
execute certain responsibilities on behalf of the Board of Directors and
will serve as the substantive leader of national-level
counterintelligence. The CI Executive will be a federal employee,
selected by the Board of Directors with the concurrence of the Attorney
General, DCI and the Secretary of Defense.
The CI Executive will report to the FBI Director, as Chairman of
the Board of Directors, but will be responsible to the Board of
Directors as a whole. The Board will, through the Chairman, oversee and
evaluate the CI Executive.
The CI Executive and the National Coordinator for Security,
Infrastructure Protection and Counterterrorism will work together to
insure that both of their programs are well coordinated with each other.
The CI Executive, in carrying out the duties and responsibilities
of the position, will advise members of the Board on counterintelligence
programs and policies.
The National Counterintelligence Policy Board
The CI Executive will chair the National Counterintelligence Policy
Board. Senior counterintelligence officials from State, Defense,
Justice, Energy, JCS, CIA, FBI and NSC Staff, at a minimum will serve on
the Policy Board. The NSC Deputies Committee will approve the
composition, functions and duties of the Policy Board which will be
consistent with the statutorily defined functions of the Policy Board.
The Policy Board will establish, with the approval of the Board of
Directors, other interagency boards and working groups as necessary.
The Policy Board, under the chairmanship of the CI Executive, will
serve as an Interagency Working Group to prepare issues relating to the
full implementation of this PDD for Deputies discussions and review, as
well as a forum to provide advice to the CI Executive on priorities with
respect to the National Counterintelligence Strategy.
Office of the CI Executive
The CI Executive, on behalf of the Board of Directors, will head
the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive, which will
among its other functions assume the functions previously exercised by
the NACIC. To the extent permitted by law, resources previously
assigned to the NACIC will become the initial resource base for the
Office of the CI Executive. The Office will develop and deploy the
National CI Strategic Planning
The Office, in consultation with United States government agencies
and the private sector, will produce an annual report entitled The
National Threat Identification and Prioritization Assessment for review
by the Deputies Committee.
The Office, drawing on this Assessment and working with the policy
community, appropriate Government counterintelligence organizations and
the private sector, will formulate and, subject to the approval of the
Board of Directors, publish the National Counterintelligence Strategy.
National CI Strategic Analysis
The Office will oversee and coordinate the production of strategic
national CI analysis and will be supported in this endeavor by all
components of the Executive Branch.
The Office will oversee and coordinate the production of CI damage
assessments and "lessons learned" papers with full support from
Executive Branch components.
National CI Program Budget and Evaluation
The Office, working with the DCI's Community Management Staff, will
review, evaluate, and coordinate the integration of CI budget and
resource plans of, initially, the DOD, CIA and FBI. It will report to
the Board of Directors and the Deputies Committee on how those plans
meet the objectives and priorities of the National CI Strategy.
The Office will evaluate the implementation of the National CI
Strategy by the CI community agencies and report to the Board of
Directors and Deputies Committee. The Office will also identify
shortfalls, gaps and weaknesses in agency programs and recommend
National CI Collection and Targeting Coordination
The Office will develop for approval by the Board of Directors
strategic CI investigative, operational and collection objectives and
priorities that implement the National CI Strategy.
The Office will not have an operational role in CI operations and
investigations and no independent contacts or activities with foreign
National CI Outreach, Watch and Warning Capability
The Office will conduct and coordinate CI vulnerability surveys
throughout government, and with the private sector as appropriate, while
working with the Security Policy community. It will engage government
and private sector entities to identify more clearly and completely what
must be protected.
The Office will conduct and coordinate CI community outreach
programs in the government and private sector. It will serve as the
national coordination mechanism for issuing warnings of
counterintelligence threats to the national security.
The Office will work with various government and private sector R&D
centers to explore technology needs and solutions for the CI community.
The Office will ensure that emerging technology and products and
services are used effectively.
In addition, the Office will develop policies for CI training and
professional development for CI investigators, operators, and analysts.
It will also develop and manage joint training exercises, and assess the
need for a National CI Training Academy. Also, the CI Executive and the
Office will have a Principal Legal Advisor who will ensure that all
activities of the Executive and the office comport with the law,
Executive Orders and Attorney General Guidelines. The Principal Legal
Advisor will provide advice and counsel to the Executive and the Office
regarding national security law issues. The Advisor will coordinate
with the appropriate law enforcement, intelligence and defense agencies'
General Counsels and Legal Advisors in providing legal advice, guidance
and representation to the Executive and the Office.