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Office of Science and Technology Policy

For Immediate Release November 13, 2000

President Clinton announced today the recipients of the 2000 National Medals of Science and National Medals of Technology, the nation's highest science and technology honors. The medals will be conferred to the awardees at a ceremony at the National Building Museum in Washington, D.C., on December 1, 2000.

"These exceptional scientists and engineers have transformed our world and enhanced our daily lives," President Clinton said. "Their imagination and ingenuity will continue to inspire future generations of American scientists to remain at the cutting edge of scientific discovery and technological innovation."

The National Medal of Science, established by Congress in 1959 and administered by the National Science Foundation, honors individuals for contributions to the present state of knowledge across a variety of science frontiers. Including this year's recipients, the Medal of Science has been awarded to 386 distinguished scientists and engineers. More information about the National Medal of Science is available on the web at

The National Medal of Technology, established by Congress in 1980 and administered by the Department of Commerce, recognizes technological innovation and advancement of the nation's global competitiveness, as well as ground-breaking contributions that commercialize a technology, create jobs, improve productivity, or stimulate the nation's growth and development in other ways. To date, 115 individuals and 16 companies have been honored with this award. More information about the National Medal of Technology can be found at

The awardees will be honored in Washington during the last week of November with a series of special events. On December 1, from 10:00 am to 11:30 am, all the laureates will take part in a roundtable discussion for the media on the future of science and engineering education, at the Horizon Ballroom of the Ronald Reagan Building. Following the roundtable, the laureates will be available for individual media interviews.

The medals will be presented that evening at a black tie dinner at the National Building Museum, hosted by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, the National Medals of Science and Technology Foundation, the National Science Foundation and the Department of Commerce. There will be photo opportunities of the laureates receiving their medals.

Live video satellite coverage of the December 1 Presidential awards ceremony begins at approximately 7:30:

Ku Band Satellite                  C-Band Satellite
Telstar 4 K-13                     Galaxy 3 C-23
Position 89 degrees                95 degrees

Downlink Frequency 12094 MHz (v) 4160 MHz (H)

A live webcast of the ceremony will also be available from the Office of Science and Technology web page, located at and from the National Science and Technology Medals Foundation, located at

2000 National Medal of Science Awardees

Behavioral/Social Sciences

Gary Becker, University of Chicago
Becker pioneered the economic analysis of racial discrimination and led recent developments in how social forces shape individual economic behavior.

Biological Sciences

Nancy C. Andreasen, University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics Andreasen's pivotal contributions included joining behavioral science with the technologies of neuroscience and neuroimaging in order to understand processes such as memory and creativity.

Peter H. Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden and Washington University Raven has become one of the world's leading authorities on plant systematics and evolution, introduced the concept of coevolution and is a leader in international efforts to preserve biodiversity.

Carl R. Woese, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Woese's work in proposing the notion that there are three primary evolutionary domains into which all living things may be classified led to a quantitative map, or universal tree of life, by which the diversity of all life can be assessed.


John D. Baldeschwieler, California Institute of Technology Baldeschwieler's work in molecular assemblies led to practical pharmaceutical products and instrumentation. He developed Ion Cyclotron Resonance Spectroscopy, an important tool for chemical and biochemical analysis that led to a new scientific field providing unique ways to study molecular structure and reactivity.

Ralph F. Hirschmann, University of Pennsylvania Hirschmann's work in several fields of chemistry with Merck & Co., Inc., led to the development of many life-saving medicines. As the University of Pennsylvania's first Research Professor in Chemistry, he established a collaborative research program between the university and industry leading to continued discoveries of biomedical importance.


Yuan-Cheng B. Fung, University of California - San Diego Fung's theory of aeroelasticity formed the defining ideas in how aero-structures interact with aerodynamic flows, an important contribution to aerospace engineering. Applying analytical methods of mechanics to the study of biological tissues, he contributed new concepts in the field of biomechanics in which engineering principles are used to solve important biomedical problems.


John Griggs Thompson, University of Florida - Gainesville Thompson is considered one of the foremost group theorists of all time, and his name is associated with one of the monumental achievements of the 20th Century - the classification of all finite simple groups. He was awarded the Fields Medal in 1970, the highest international honor in mathematics, regarded by some as the mathematics equivalent to a Nobel Prize.

Karen K. Uhlenbeck, University of Texas - Austin Uhlenbeck made pioneering contributions to global analysis and gauge theory that resulted in advances in mathematical physics and the theory of partial differential equations. She is considered a founder of geometry based on analytical methods. She is also a leader in encouraging young women to study mathematics.

Physical Sciences

Willis E. Lamb, University of Arizona - Tucson Lamb won the 1955 Nobel Prize for experimental work on hydrogen that revealed a new relativistic quantum effect. His work became one of the foundations of quantum electrodynamics. He also pioneered the field of laser physics.

Jeremiah P. Ostriker, Princeton University Ostriker's contributions in astrophysics revolutionized concepts of the nature of pulsars, the sizes and masses of galaxies, and the nature and distribution of matter in the universe.

Gilbert F. White, University of Colorado - Boulder White achieved national attention for his approaches on using non-structural means to reduce damage from flooding. His research on the use of floodplains and their full range of social costs and benefits in different locales provided the basis for a new research paradigm and new public policy.

2000 National Medal of Technology Awardees


Douglas C. Engelbart, Bootstrap Institute For creating the foundations of personal computing including continuous, real-time interaction based on cathode-ray tube displays and the mouse, hypertext linking, text editing, on-line journals, shared-screen tele-conferencing, and remote collaborative work.

Dean Kamen, DEKA Research & Development Corporation For inventions that have advanced medical care worldwide, and for innovative and imaginative leadership in awakening America to the excitement of science and technology.

Donald B. Keck, Corning Incorporated
Robert D. Maurer, Corning Incorporated
Peter C. Schultz, Heraeus Amersil, Inc. For the invention of low-loss optical fiber, which has enabled the telecommunications revolution, rapidly transforming our society, the way we work, learn and live - and our expectations for the future. It is the basis for one of the largest most dynamic industries in the world today.


The IBM Corporation, Louis V. Gerstner, CEO, accepting For 40 years of innovations in the technology of hard disk drives and information storage products.